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Tuesday, December 26, 2017

REFLECTIONS ON THE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY YEAR OF THE GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION by RAY LIGHT (FROM NL 105)




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ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN ROL, USA NEWSLETTER #105



REFLECTIONS ON THE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY YEAR OF THE GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION

by RAY LIGHT
Over the past year, the Revolutionary Organization of Labor (ROL-USA) has persistently promoted commemoration of the hundredth anniversary of the most important revolution in modern human history, the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia (GOSR).

Last January, as 2017 began, I concluded ROL-USA’s first article on the centenary of the GOSR in Russia, as follows: This remarkable record of accomplishments of the GOSR and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to which it gave birth makes it unmistakably clear that capitalism is not “the end of history” as the imperialist propagandists have claimed. Nor socialism the “failed project” condemned by the social chauvinists, social pacifists, and social imperialists of our time. It is the social system whose time has come. It is up to us to continue this forward march of history in our own time. (“The World Historic Achievements and Historical Significance of the Great October Socialist Revolution,” Ray O’ Light Newsletter #100, January-February 2017)

As one of the few Leninist forces among the leftists in the USA and internationally over the past fifty years, the small group I’ve led has focused much effort on defending the immortal legacy of Leninism and on attempting to help rekindle the red flame of the GOSR in this most noble cause, the cause of the liberation of humanity. Hence, ROL-USA approached 2017 with great anticipation.

Yet, given the historical distance separating us in 2017 from the momentous revolutionary events in Russia and its impact far beyond its borders one hundred years ago, as well as the fact that its Leninist character was undermined and ultimately destroyed in the land of its birth more than fifty years ago, and, most significantly, given that Leninism was dismissed and abandoned by most of the rest of the world’s revolutionary forces in that same period, for most folks in the USA, the heartland of world capitalism, as well as for most of the international proletariat and the oppressed peoples of the world, the centennial year of the GOSR has been passing by with barely a notice on their part.

-The U.S. Ruling Class on the October Revolution’s Centennial-

Nevertheless, it is significant that the U.S. monopoly capitalist and imperialist ruling class, through its mass media hirelings, has felt the need to wage a relentless assault on the historical facts associated with this monumental achievement of humanity. A number of purported “historical documentary” videos have been “created by” and/or distributed by Netflix and other corporate media video platforms. One of the most ridiculous examples of these “docudramas” argued that the GOSR was motivated by a “dynastic” battle between the 300 year-long Tsarist dynasty of the “divinely ordained” Romanov family with its incredible wealth, moral decrepitude and parasitism on the one hand and Lenin’s industrious and close-knit Ulyanov family on the other! Underscoring the absurdity of the comparison between the autocratic Tsar and the long time immigrant revolutionary in exile: Lenin was such a modest person that, after successfully leading the Bolshevik Party and the Russian working class to state power in the largest country on earth, as the leader of Soviet Russia and then the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), Lenin continued to refer to himself as simply a pupil of Marx and Engels.*

*Taking his lead from comrade Lenin, years after Lenin’s death, Stalin declared: “Lenin was, and remains, the most loyal and consistent pupil of Marx and Engels, and he wholly and completely based himself on the principles of Marxism.” (Stalin, Works, Volume X, p. 97) Stalin, like Lenin, had a real modesty. In a December 1931 interview with the German author, Emil Ludwig, a decade after becoming the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, comrade Stalin, the leader chiefly responsible for the day to day operations of the USSR, said, “As for myself, I am just a pupil of Lenin’s, and the aim of my life is to be a worthy pupil of his.”

The more serious print media of the U.S. Empire, too, from the New York Times to the Wall Street Journal to Foreign Affairs magazine, all the “knowledgeable” media pundits, the enlightened, liberal imperialist bourgeois functionaries and intellectuals, especially in the weeks leading up to the actual anniversary (on November 7, new calendar), have unleashed poisonous venom against Lenin and Stalin and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union–Bolshevik (CPSU-B), the outstanding leaders of the Russian Revolution. These hired mass media guns of Wall Street have attempted to bury the immortal achievements of the Soviet Union, of the Soviet industrial working class and peasantry under communist leadership, during approximately forty years of unparalleled victories for the working people of the Soviet Union and the world (1917-1956).

Let us expose this mass deception, the “big lie,” by citing just one indisputable fact — the decisive fact about the most important political-military event of the past hundred years: it was Stalin and the Bolshevik Party-led Soviet Red Army, working people and youth who were the decisive factor in the defeat of Nazi German-led global fascism in World War II. Look it up!

To extend the mass influence of “the big lie” on this issue among the U.S. working people and the toilers throughout the rest of the world, just in the past few months there have been at least two major Hollywood films devoted to cultivating admiration and “hero-worship” for Winston Churchill, who was Britain’s Prime Minister during WWII. In their current rewrite of WW II history, the U.S. Empire seems to have chosen to make Churchill their “main hero” in the defeat of global fascism.*

*About a year earlier, a major Hollywood film focused on the British king and sympathetically portrayed his “noble” effort to overcome his stutter “in order to contribute to the war effort”–placing him, too, in the U.S. pantheon of popular World War II heroes.  

Incredibly, the Churchill film that I sat through never even mentioned the Soviet Union! A far cry from Churchill’s own assessment at the time: One example from Spring 1945 in the course of Nazi Germany’s surrender, “Future generations will acknowledge their debt to the Red Army as unreservedly as do we who have lived to witness these proud achievements.”

Meanwhile, the British people, whatever they thought of Churchill’s role during the war, stunningly and soundly defeated his Conservative Party and replaced it with a Labor government immediately after the war’s end! Accordingly, Churchill resigned as Prime Minister in July 1945 and was a private citizen of the United Kingdom when he traveled to the USA, to President Truman’s home state of Kansas in 1946, to deliver his poisonous “Iron Curtain” speech against the Soviet Union, on behalf of rising U.S. imperialism.

-The U.S. Petty-bourgeois Intelligentsia on the Soviet Union-

The “respected” petty bourgeois social-democratic and liberal-left media such as The Nation magazine carries the anti-communist message into situations and among “progressive” forces that the big bourgeoisie cannot reach directly. One particularly illuminating example of the shameful role played by such opportunist forces combined with their utter shamelessness appeared in the 11/13/17 issue of The Nation, the very issue that hit the streets in time for the hundredth anniversary of the GOSR! In an article entitled “The New Thinking,” Columbia University journalism professor Keith Gessen expresses shock that Gorbachev did not know that capitalism had a negative, non-productive and parasitic side as the Soviet revisionist leader “naively” gave away the country to Reagan and U.S. imperialism without getting anything in return. Furthermore, Gessen points out that Gorbachev’s “naivete” was “widely shared; many soviet people had come to believe what they’d heard on Voice of America about the freedom-loving peoples of the West.” And Gessen admits that he (and The Nation) had shared and promoted these illusions about U.S. imperialism and had “cheered on” Gorbachev. Moreover, he points out that the Soviet peoples have suffered greatly at the hands of the Russian oligarchs, whose path was paved by Gorbachev.

Gessen states tersely: “For Westerners, Gorbachev brought a period of peace, calm and prosperity; for Russians, he surrendered the empire without a fight.” Despite all this, really because of it, Gessen remains sympathetic to Gorbachev. Quite a contrast with Gessen’s cavalier treatment of Stalin whose alleged “crimes” he condemns in general, in lockstep with every reactionary in the world. (Evidently, one of his crimes was that, unlike Gorbachev, Stalin was not naive but quite clear about the negative features of capitalism in its dying imperialist stage. For he brilliantly and decisively led the world’s peoples in the global victory over Hitlerite fascism.)  

Gessen even speculates that the (revisionist) Soviet Union might still exist today had Gorbachev not openly betrayed the people of his country. Gessen has only a bit of remorse and absolutely no self-criticism!  As a bourgeois professor in the belly of the U.S. Empire, reflecting his great nation chauvinism and his deep ignorance of the immortal accomplishments of the Soviet Union, Gessen concludes his “timely article” with this punchline: “a poor and backward country was always going to be a terrible place to test out socialism.” Thus, he only adds to the fog of political confusion surrounding the great anniversary for the exploited and oppressed of the world who urgently need the proletarian truth about the wonderful triumphs of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the USSR.

*****

-Leninism in Commemoration of the October Revolution’s Hundredth Anniversary-

Again, ROL-USA’s Leninist message to the international proletariat regarding the centenary of the GOSR in Russia emphasizes the “remarkable record of accomplishments of the GOSR and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to which it gave birth. This historical truth makes it unmistakably clear that capitalism is not ‘the end of history’ as the imperialist propagandists have claimed. Nor socialism the ‘failed project’ condemned by the social chauvinists, social pacifists, and social imperialists of our time. It is the social system whose time has come. It is up to us to continue this forward march of history in our own time.”

With a similar revolutionary spirit and with more organizational strength, in June 2017, the Ecuador-based International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (ICMLPO) issued Number 34 of their Journal, Unity and Struggle, devoted to the “Hundredth Anniversary of the October Revolution 1917-2017.” While the pieces vary in quality and breadth, the contributions from seventeen communist parties and organizations affiliated with this ICMLPO all reflect a serious attempt to rally proletarian forces across the world under the red banner of the Great October Socialist Revolution. For those who seek to return with the masses of humanity to the path of successful national democratic and proletarian socialist revolution, this 220 page book (Unity and Struggle No. 34) provides a positive model of modesty, of honest searching out and sharing of the experience of the working class movement in all countries (i.e. Marxist-Leninist theory) under the impact of the October Revolution.*

*The core organizations that formed the Unity & Struggle motion were the Latin American and European parties that had supported the Albanian Party of Labor when it made its principled break with the so-called Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China with its “Three Worlds Theory” in the mid to late 1970’s. We had already taken such a principled stand against Chinese revisionism in early 1968.
Some of the pieces discuss the outstanding contributions of the October Revolution on fundamental and universal questions of the revolution, including the proletarian vanguard party, the national question, the proletarian-peasant alliance, the woman question, the Leninist theory of the proletarian revolution, education and culture, and the significance of the Communist International. Others discuss the immediate practical impact of the October Revolution on the advancement of the revolutionary movement in their respective country, including Iran, Norway and Germany. And Mexican comrades compare the class character and results of the Mexican Revolution which just preceded the Russian Revolution of 1917, with the Bolshevik-led proletarian revolution. Two of my favorite pieces are “The Red Army and the Soviet People Saved Humanity from Nazism” passionately presented by the PCR of Brazil and “Red October and the Founding of the Communist International” by Communist Platform—for the Communist Party of the Proletariat of Italy. This latter piece is quite substantial on a vital subject for today’s proletarian revolutionaries. It has been of real help to me in working up the final installment of ROL-USA’s pamphlet, “Commemorating the Hundredth Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.” Our concluding article can be found elsewhere in this ROL Newsletter #105 and is entitled, “The October Revolution and the Communist International.”

Unfortunately, beyond the Unity and Struggle book and our long pamphlet, we have not discovered much serious educational material and mass mobilization that modestly seeks to share and learn from the treasure-house of rich revolutionary experience that emerged with and sprang from the Great October Socialist Revolution 100 years ago. The Russian working class and toiling masses of Tsarist Russia proved in practice the triumphant wisdom of Leninism 100 years ago. For it was key to victory of proletarian revolution there and then.

Moreover, little more than twenty-five years after the victory of Red October, came the Soviet-led defeat of world fascism in World War II featuring the triumphant Soviet Red Army march through Europe driving the previously undefeated Hitler-led German fascist army all the way to Berlin, paving the way for the creation of peoples democracies across Eastern Europe in its wake. And just a few years later, little more than thirty years after the October Revolution, having received invaluable aid from the Soviet Union, the Chinese Communist Party led a victorious national democratic revolution over the U.S. imperialist-backed Chiang Kai-shek and his Kuomintang army and regime, liberating one-quarter of humanity.

By the early 1950’s, thirty-five years after Red October, approximately one-third of the world’s peoples still lived under direct capitalist rule, while one-third lived in the so-called “non-aligned” countries taking an allegedly third “neutral” path, and one-third lived in the newly created socialist camp. It seemed that nothing could stop the world’s peoples from creating a socialist world in short order. (See “The World Historic Achievements and Historical Significance of the Great October Socialist Revolution,” Ray O’ Light Newsletter #100, January-February 2017. Also, reprinted as Chapter II in the pamphlet entitled, “Commemorating the Hundredth Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.”)



But not only have we not created a socialist world yet, but those victories have been sharply reversed. Today there is no socialist camp or even an international communist movement and little sign that either has ever existed! Nevertheless, because we are still living in the era of imperialism and the unfolding proletarian revolution, in our view, Leninism remains key to such victories in our time, one hundred years later. Hence, the revolutionary need for a profound rediscovery of the priceless treasures of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

*****

-Leninist Commemoration or Opportunist Celebration?-

The assessment of our organization is that socialism in the USSR was overthrown in the mid 1950’s, not long after the death of great Stalin in 1953. The defeat of socialism in the USSR many decades ago means that any recognition of the October Revolution Centennial during 2017 would be more meaningful the more commemorative and less celebratory it is.

Quite problematic for the weak, divided and disoriented international communist movement of today, therefore, are those opportunists who pay lip service to “celebrating” the centennial of the GOSR but who are just going through the motions or those who are so taken with their own organization’s tiny accomplishments and/or are so ignorant of or dismissive of the monumental achievements of the GOSR that they serve to douse the red flame of revolution wherever they go.

Even before the mid 1950’s, beginning with Browderism in the USA in the 1940’s while the World War II alliance between the Soviet Union and U.S. imperialism was still functioning, — there have been many right opportunist forces and trends that claimed imperialism, especially U.S. imperialism, had the capacity to “peacefully co-exist” with socialist countries over an extended period as well as with bourgeois democratic regimes in the oppressed nations (and vice-versa). This was modern revisionism. Following Browderism, there emerged Titoism in Yugoslavia, then the Khrushchevites in the Soviet Union itself, followed by Euro-communism in Western Europe, pseudo-Marxist proponents of the “non-aligned movement” in the newly independent countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and ultimately even modern revisionism in Vietnam and China as well. They all asserted that Leninism, the guide to proletarian and national democratic revolutionary victories, was now unnecessary.

Moreover, “left” opportunist forces, including many adherents of Maoism beginning with the so-called Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China, of Che Guevarism or one or another form of anarchism or liquidationism have promoted the idea that Leninism/socialism is a “failed project.” This trend has gained currency as the historical memory of the great accomplishments that began with the October Revolution has faded with time. These radical (and individual) socialists and anarchists too have asserted that Leninism has been or needs to be replaced by “Mao’s Thought” or some other more “modern” theory. Again, as with the right opportunists, Leninism is allegedly outmoded.

By 2017, fifty years of almost unchallenged revisionist domination of the international communist movement now requires the rediscovery of Leninism and its amazing revolutionary fruits. 




*****

Unfortunately, the two October Revolution “celebrations” that the Revolutionary Organization of Labor, USA has participated in during the period leading up to the Centennial have been largely celebratory and self-congratulatory. They lacked the serious, modest and sober component that can serve the interests of the proletarian revolution in these difficult times. More significantly, in the name of “celebrating” the GOSR, they have been largely dismissive of the unprecedented revolutionary achievements of the GOSR.

The two-day event co-sponsored by the US Chapter of the International League of People’s Struggles (ILPS) with its non-governmental organization (NGO) “offshoot,” PRISM, was held in New York City at the beginning of July. On the first day, other than the welcoming speech of ILPS Chairman Jose Maria Sison (that was streamed on video from the Netherlands) and my address on behalf of ROL-USA and the positive Q&A role of ROL comrades in the morning panel discussion, and on the second day, other than the ROL-USA cultural presentation of comrade Pablo Neruda’s wondrous poem “Let the Railsplitter Awake,” his marvelous tribute to the Soviet Union, there was little attention paid to the actual October Revolution and its legacy—despite the fact that this was the “excuse” for the event!

I had warned in my opening address that the two-day event, with a schedule that provided little time focused on the October Revolution, might serve as “an inoculation against the comrades and friends present contracting October Revolution fever.” By the event’s end, it appeared that ROL-USA had been invited there to provide the small dose of the “live October Revolution virus” which most of the other panelists and participants (mostly “Mao’s thought” devotees, Workers World Trotskyites and anarchists) made sure to disparage, marginalize, ignore or otherwise dismiss.

*****

The other celebratory event was held in Germany in late October.  This three-day event was sponsored mainly by ICOR (the International Coordination of Revolutionary Parties and Organizations) with which we have been affiliated since its founding a half dozen years ago. It was scheduled so as to allow its participants the possibility to be in Russia for a touristic celebration around the November 7 anniversary.

The ICOR event was organized and led mainly by the Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany (MLPD) and its former chairman Stephan Engel. He had been appointed by ICOR’s Chair, Monica Gartner-Engel, who was also serving as the MLPD leader at the time. This event was much more focused on political-ideological questions and was more seriously carried out than the New York event described above, with the involvement of serious organizations such as the CP of India (ML-Red Star) and the South African Communist Party (M-L) as well as the ILPS-European chapter. However, for the MLPD and a number of other parties, the challenge seemed to be how to address the historic achievements of the October Revolution of 1917, while avoiding facing up to the devastating defeats that the international communist movement has suffered one after the other over the past fifty years and more, the very period when most of the German comrades and international representatives present have been in responsible positions in vanguard and mass organizations in their respective countries.*

*The MLPD and CPI(ML-Red Star) in particular, have carried out positive work in the international arena through ICOR, including mobilizing approximately 150 volunteers to travel to Kobane to successfully build a maternity clinic in the war-ravaged Kurdish part of Syria. However, when Monika Gartner-Engel, the leader of ICOR, spoke with justifiable pride in this proletarian internationalist accomplishment, so rare these days, she immodestly overestimated its significance as compared with the magnificent proletarian internationalist deeds of the Bolshevik-led October Revolution, the Stalin-led Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Soviet-led world communist movement from 1917 until the early 1950’s. In underestimating and diminishing these Soviet accomplishments, comrade Gartner-Engel helped cover up the devastating defeats of the international communist movement of the past fifty years. By contrast, one of the highlights of Soviet achievements was passionately expressed by Sharmistha Chowdhury. This leading woman activist associated with the CPI (ML-Red Star), who was recently released from an Indian prison herself, raised the fact that when Jim Crow white supremacy and lynching were commonplace in the USA, white supremacy in all forms was already an enforced violation of the law in the Soviet Union.

Stephan Engel immodestly selected himself to provide both the opening and closing remarks of the Seminar. Furthermore, most of the half dozen comrades chosen by Engel to give the main address on the six themes (also formulated by Engel) and to serve on the presidium with Engel (though in practice he mostly ran the seminar himself) seemed selected mainly for the purpose of attempting to recruit their organizations to ICOR. In truth, the record of the most significant organizations and their leaders was quite deficient when it came to defense of Leninism and the immortal legacy of the GOSR. Half the organizations on the presidium making the main addresses on ICOR’s hundredth anniversary celebration of the October Revolution in 2017, including Stephan Engel and the MLPD itself, had in November 1993 led a Commemorative Seminar on Mao’s birth centennial and had published a book based on that seminar.

In its “General Declaration on Mao Zedong Thought,” published at the end of that book, the Stephan Engel-led MLPD, with other parties and individuals, declared as they had repeatedly done in the Mao Seminar: “This theory [of continuing revolution under proletarian class dictatorship] is of great historic significance for having inaugurated a new and higher stage in the development of the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism. This is the stage of Mao Zedong Thought or Maoism.”

Yet, William Hinton, author of the world famous book, Fanshen, admits in an article in that same official book of the 1993 Mao Seminar, “... it wasn’t until the reform had dismantled one sector after another of the socialist economic base in China ... that I began to understand what Mao meant by ‘capitalist road’ and ‘capitalist roader’ in China. Thus, the unfolding practice of reform since 1979 educated me ...” (Mao Zedong Lives, Volume I, p. 165) In other words, Mao and Mao’s Thought had not convinced or even enlightened Hinton during the so-called Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Furthermore, Hinton concedes that, “Few people, even among Mao’s strongest supporters, really understood it.”(!)  Karl Marx taught that “Our theory is not a dogma but a guide to action.” How good was this “new and higher theory” if no one could understand and act on it?! In fact, in conjunction with the shameful betrayal of the oppressed peoples and the international working class by the Soviet revisionists, those who had subjectively raised Mao and Maoism above Leninism played a major role of objectively pushing Leninism and the Great October Socialist Revolution into oblivion.

While a number of comrades, including representatives of the MLPD’s youth arm, Rebell, and MLPD comrades from the industrial working class, as well as comrades from parties and organizations from elsewhere in the world, made positive five minute presentations over the three day period, the majority of the contributions to the Seminar, mostly from MLPD members, suffered from a focus on what the weaknesses of the Russian Revolution were rather than its phenomenal strengths!

Having decades-old “hang-overs” from the GPCR, these opportunists were seeking an answer from eighty to one hundred years ago to the question why the movement in their own time, the recent decades, has gone from one defeat to the next! And they desired at all cost to avoid dealing with the fact that historical development has proved that the so-called Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China was not great, it was not proletarian, and it was certainly not a revolution!*

*One positive exception to this tendency among the Maoists: the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist (TKP-ML) published (in English and Turkish) a major article entitled, “On the occasion of the 100th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution – The teachings, importance and heritage of the October Revolution as a beginning of a new era in the history of the world.” With an appropriately modest, comradely and admiring approach to the October Revolution, the TKP-ML comrades declared that the Russian Revolution was mainly an international one and established a standard. The comrades also made a detailed concrete exposure of the internal and external policies of the Russian revisionists that enabled them to come to power in the USSR. The TKP-ML pamphlet is a serious and sober effort to commemorate the GOSR, despite being handicapped by a continuing effort to reconcile this positive work with support for the Chinese Cultural Revolution.

Let’s look at a brief overview of the history of proletarian revolution thus far.

1)  In 1871, the Paris Commune was victorious and heroically held power with tremendous creative initiative for seventy days. Then it was crushed by reaction.

2)  In 1917, during the First World War, the Great October Socialist Revolution was victorious (while several other proletarian revolutions in Europe arose and were defeated). The GOSR strongly held proletarian power for about thirty-five years, more than one hundred and seventy-five times as long as the Paris Commune, and had led the expansion of the Socialist camp to about equal numbers with the consolidated capitalist camp (with the non-aligned movement making up the other third). Moreover, with the death of Stalin in 1953, the October Revolution was not yet defeated.

3)  From approximately 1948 to 1972 global anti-revisionist struggle was waged over what direction the socialist cause was going to take. Initially, the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform), with Liu Shao-chi’s Internationalism and Nationalism playing an outstanding Marxist-Leninist role, led a positive struggle against the destructive, disintegrative bourgeois nationalist role played by Titoism.

In the forty-five years since 1972, U.S. imperialism consolidated its hegemonic imperialist power on the basis of the Nixon-Kissinger rapprochement with Russian and Chinese revisionism.

Certainly, the general outline indicates that the first twenty to thirty years after the October Revolution, when unprecedented advances were made, mistakes were not the main aspect of the work of the Soviet Union, the Communist International and other fruits of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The lessons we draw from this period need to be mainly about how we can emulate these impressive achievements in this time, condition and place.

The result of the Stephan Engel/MLPD-led bourgeois diplomacy in structuring and conducting the ICOR Seminar was that this event, too, failed to decisively put forward the immortal legacy of the GOSR and therefore failed to inspire in the participants the demand for the revival of Leninism in our time.

I consider the primary character of both of these events to have been as part of the multi-pronged attack on the October Revolution and its immortal legacy. Its secondary aspect, including our role, was as encouragement of the revival of Leninism required by the international proletariat and oppressed people today.

*****

My conclusion: With Leninism, from 1917 until 1950 or so, despite an objectively unfavorable situation, mostly victories! Without Leninism, from 1957 onward, despite an objectively favorable situation (at least initially), mostly defeats!

Let us proudly raise the banner once again of the Great October Socialist Revolution!

Long Live Leninism—Key to Our Victories!

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“Stalin did what winning leaders do: he articulated and drove toward a consistent goal, in his case a powerful state backed by a unified society that had eradicated capitalism and built industrial socialism ... Stalin galvanized millions. His colossal authority was rooted in a dedicated party, a formidable governing apparatus, and Marxist-Leninist ideology. But his power was magnified many times over by ordinary people, who projected onto him their ambitions for social justice, peace, abundance, and national greatness.”

Hint: The author of these words is no “Stalinist.” On the contrary, this is a remarkable tribute, for the author’s deep study of Stalin and his times is motivated by a desire to keep the old and dying system of monopoly capitalism and imperialism from being overthrown and replaced by socialism. And, under Stalin’s leadership, the international working class and the oppressed peoples of the world came close to ushering in such a socialist world.


–Still stumped?   See below for answer.


Stephen Kotkin is a chaired professor in History and International Affairs at Princeton University and a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution. The quote is from an essay entitled, “When Stalin Faced Hitler” in the current issue of Foreign Affairs (Nov/Dec 2017). The essay is adapted from Kotkin’s most recent book, the second in a three-volume biography of Stalin. The paragraph from which we drew Kotkin’s mystery quote concludes with the following: “Dictators who amass great power often retreat into pet pursuits, expounding interminably on their obsessions and paralyzing the state. But Stalin’s obsession was a socialist great power, and he labored day and night to build one. Stalin was a myth, but he proved equal to the myth.”

—the Editor

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